|USEFUL CHEMICAL REACTIONS|
A chemical reaction ALWAYS forms a new substance.
Signs that show a chemical reaction has taken place are:
i. A change in colour
ii. A change in temperature (usually gets hot)
Types of reactionBurning
Oxidation and reduction
Burning always produces an OXIDE.
Burning an element produces ONE oxide.
Burning a compound produces TWO or more oxides.
The mass of the oxides formed will always be MORE than the mass of the substance being burned. (why?)
eg i. Burning magnesium
Burns with bright white flame to form magnesium oxide
Word equation: Magnesium + oxygen ----> magnesium oxideBurning Methane (natural gas)
Methane is a COMPOUND of carbon and hydrogen. (ie a hydrocarbon. other hydrocarbons are wax, petrol)
It burns with a smoky flame to form carbon dioxide and water
Word equation: Methane + oxygen ------> carbon dioxide and water
Alcohol will also burn to form carbon dioxide and water.
This is when a compound splits apart and forms two (or more) new substances.. (Each of the new substances contains atoms that was there to start with)
note : Elements can NEVER decompose because they are only contain ONE kind of atom.
Each new substance formed will have LESS mass than the original substance
eg i. Heating copper sulphate
Copper sulphate DECOMPOSES and forms water vapour, leaving white anhydrous copper sulphate.
Word equation: Hydrated copper sulphate ----> anhydrous copper sulphate + water
NOTE: This reaction is reversible. If water is added to anhydrous copper sulphate then the solution turns blue again accompanied by a rise in temperature.Heating copper carbonate The copper carbonate DECOMPOSES forming carbon dioxide gas and leaving copper oxide.
Word equation: Copper carbonate ----> copper oxide + carbon dioxide
iii. Heating limestone
The limestone decomposes and forms LIME and carbon dioxide gas
Word equation: Calcium carbonate -----> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
or Limestone -----> lime + carbon dioxide3. Oxidation and Reduction
Oxidation is when a substance reacts with (or joins up with) oxygen
Reduction is when a substance has oxygen taken away from it.
eg i. Heating carbon with copper oxide
The carbon REDUCES the copper oxide, forming carbon dioxide gas and leaving pink copper metal.
Word equation: Carbon + copper oxide -----> carbon dioxide + copper
Placing burning magnesium in carbon dioxide
Word equation: magnesium + carbon dioxide -----> magnesium oxide + carbon
Reactions with acid : Neutralization
i. Adding dilute hydrochloric acid to marble
The acid will react with the marble and produce carbon dioxide gas.
Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate ------> calcium chloride + carbon dioxide
The hydrochloric acid will NEUTRALISE the sodium hydroxide (a strong alkali) forming water and common salt.
Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide ------> sodium chloride + water
Respiration is the reaction that takes place in ALL living organisms that releases energy from sugar. This energy is used by the organisms for essentials like growth, movement and warmth
Word equation: Glucose + oxygen ----> carbon dioxide + water
This is the reaction that takes place in the chloroplasts (found mainly in leaves) of plant cells
It converts carbon dioxide and water into sugar and starch, using energy from the sun.
Word equation Carbon dioxide + water -----------> glucose + oxygen
Fermentation is the name of the process that turns sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide
It is carried out by a fungus called YEAST and is used a lot in the baking and brewing industries
Word equation: sugar ----> carbon dioxide + alcoholHow to identify chemicals:
|Water|| Chemical test: Add it to anhydrous cobalt chloride which will turn from blue to pink
(This shows that a liquid contains water)
Physical test: Measure the boiling point which should be100 C
|Hydrogen:||Hydrogen burns with a squeaky 'pop'.|
|Carbon dioxide:||Bubble the gas through lime-water which will turn cloudy.|
|Oxygen||Oxygen will re-light a glowing splint.|
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