The animal kingdom The plant kingdom Body temperature Fungi Using a key
There are so many species of organisms we need to have some means of grouping
In about 1750 Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish naturalist, devised a system of grouping organisms into categories based on characteristics, such as shape or structure.
It is his system we use today
from largest group to smallest
Kingdom - Phylum -Class - Order - Family - Genus-
Each kingdom is divided into several Phyla, each phylum into several classes, each class into several orders and so on.
There are 5 major kingdoms:
Single celled animals
Each Kingdom is divided into smaller groups called Phyla. Each phylum is dovided into still smaller groups called classes. Each class is divevied into smaller groups and so on until the group is
example: the Lion : Felix leo
The genus name is written first (always Capitalized).
The species name is written second (never capitalized).
Classification of the animal
For Common Entrance we need only know the name of the main groups (phyla) and some of the classes
in the table which follows the main groups (Phyla) are on the left (in dark blue) and the classes on the right (in green)
Underneath the name of each group are the FEATURES that make it part of that
group and some example animals
(You do not need to know the Latin names (shown in brackets) for the Common Entrance exam)
|Animals with a backbone
Download VERTEBRATES worksheet
Vertebrates have an internal skeleton to support their body
These are divided into 5 smaller groups (or classes) shown on the right
Body covered in scales. Lay jelly covered eggs in water. Live in water. Breath through gills
eg Shark, Herring, Eel, Minnow
*Warm blooded (see
Animals without a backbone
Jelly-like body, central mouth surrounded by tentacles.
Arthropods have an exoskeleton (a hard external skeleton), many pairs of jointed legs and a segmented body.
The Arthropods are divided into 4 smaller groups (or classes) shown on the right
Millipedes and Centipedes :
* A warm blooded animal keeps its body at a constant temperature
eg humans have a body temperature of 37 C
A cold blooded animal has a body whose temperature varies according to the conditions.
eg The temperature of a fish would be slightly above that of the surrounding water (more if it had just been swimming rapidly)
Only birds and mammals are warm-blooded. all other animals are cold-blooded
Classification of the The Plant Kingdom
1.Flowering plants: produce SEEDS. Eg grass, apple,
All other plants are NON-FLOWERING and do NOT produce seeds. Eg algae, moss and fungi.
2. Algae Single celled plants. Reproduce asexually by binary fission. Live in wet places. Have no leaves or roots.
3. Moss Reproduces asexually by making spores. Live in damp, shady places.
4. Ferns and Horsetails: plants that have a tough fibrous stem and grow from a rhizome just under the surface of the soil . Reproduce by making spores
Fungi are not true plants as they do not possess green chlorophyll so cannot carry out photosynthesis.
They take their food from the material they are growing on/in.
Reproduces asexually by making spores.
Examples of different fungi: mushroom, yeast, mould.
Fungi (along with bacteria) are very important in the food chain for the recycling of nutrients in the soil.
Some fungi are harmful and can cause disease in crops (eg potato blight).
Some fungi are useful to man eg yeast which is used to ferment sugar and produce alcohol in the brewing industry.
Words to know from this section
VERTEBRATE Has an internal skeleton
INVERTEBRATE Has no internal skeleton
EXOSKELETON An external skeleton, like a hard skin.
WARM-BLOODED Animals whose body temperature is constant are called warm-blooded. eg Human: body temperature 37oC.
COLD-BLOODED Animals whose body temperature alters with the temperature of the surroundings eg fish